米国とカナダに学ぶ南シナ海での儲け方 ー 中国最新鋭軍用ヘリコプター「Ｚ－１０」の闇にオスプレイもビックリ仰天 ― 2012/07/25 06:54
「三沙市長」に反発も有効打なく 「百度」ボイコットも ベトナム・フィリピン
Updated July 23, 2012, 10:45 a.m. ET
Aquino Urges Expansion of Philippine Military
By CRIS LARANO
MANILA—Philippines President Benigno Aquino said Monday that the country is moving to expand its military capabilities but was quick to point out that the Southeast Asian nation isn't preparing for a fight over disputed territory in the South China Sea.
In his annual state of the nation address to Congress, Mr. Aquino urged lawmakers to pass a proposed Armed Forces modernization bill that will add 75 billion pesos ($1.8 billion) for defense spending in the next five years to acquire more cannons, personnel carriers, frigates and aircraft. The bill is pending in Congress and expected to be passed later this year, and will come on top of some 28 billion pesos his administration has already spent on military expansion since 2011.
It also comes as tensions are ratcheting up in other ways in the sea, as China pursues plans to deploy a military garrison in the newly established city of Sansha in the Xisha Islands, also known as the Paracel Islands, according to the state-run Xinhua news agency. Philippines and Vietnamese officials have protested the creation of the city, which Chinese authorities intend to use as an administration center to manage territories across the South China Sea. The sea—which is believed to contain sizable energy reserves and serves as one of the world's most important shipping lanes—is claimed in whole or in part by China, the Philippines, Vietnam, Malaysia, Taiwan and Brunei.
The garrison will be a division-level command responsible for managing the city's national defense mobilization, military reserves and carrying out military operations, Xinhua said, though information regarding the number of soldiers or other details wasn't made available.
Even with Mr. Aquino's latest plans, the Philippines' military strength will still pale in comparison with China and some other Asian nations. But it is part of a wider arms build-up across the region which analysts worry could further raise tensions and increase the odds of a shooting war if diplomats fail to manage disputes in the sea carefully.
Mr. Aquino said more planes and attack helicopters are expected next year, while the country's second Hamilton Class cutter will soon arrive.
"Now, our 36,000 kilometers of coastline will be patrolled by more modern ships," Mr. Aquino said.
The Philippines and China recently had a two-month standoff in the disputed Scarborough Shoal—a chain of reefs and rocks in the South China Sea also known as Bajo de Masinloc—after Chinese fishermen were caught with endangered species by Philippine patrol ships. Ships involved in the standoff finally began to withdraw last month after heavy storms made it difficult for them to remain, but arguments have persisted over who controls what there.
."There are those who say that we should let Bajo de Masinloc go; we should avoid the trouble. But if someone entered your yard and told you he owned it, would you agree? Would it be right to give away that which is rightfully ours?" Mr. Aquino said.
"This is not a simple situation, and there can be no simple solutions. Rest assured: We are consulting experts, every leader of our nation, our allies—even those on the other side—to find a resolution that is acceptable to all," Mr. Aquino added.
China's Foreign Ministry didn't immediately respond to a request for comment.
Also during the one-and-a-half-hour-long speech that was broadcast live, President Aquino said that a highly touted anticorruption agenda put in place by his government had helped boost economic growth, helping give the Philippines the strongest growth in Southeast Asia in the first quarter of the year. He noted that the Philippines has also overseen the creation of over three million jobs and several credit rating upgrades in nearly three years, which in turn has helped restore investor confidence and boost tourist arrivals.
He said the strong investor confidence in the country was evident in the recent robust performance of the stock market and the praise the Philippines has won from international financial publications and foreign investors.
Mr. Aquino also urged Congress to pass proposed revisions to a tobacco and alcoholic drinks tax, or better known as sin tax, to generate more revenue for social services, infrastructure projects and improving military capability.
He said that as early as next year, the Philippines—which several years ago was the world's largest importer of rice—will be a net exporter of the grain, while tourist arrivals should hit a record 4.6 million this year. Mr. Aquino is hopeful that before he steps down in 2016, there will be 10 million tourists visiting the Philippines.
July 23, 2012 8:54 AM
Philippines to boost defense, won't yield to China
MANILA, Philippines — President Benigno Aquino III said Monday that the Philippines won't back down from a South China Sea dispute with China and that his country's military would soon get dozens of new aircraft and ships for maritime defense.
Aquino announced during his annual state of the nation address that more than 40 military aircraft — from two newly refurbished C-130 cargo planes to attack helicopters — along with other weapons would be delivered in the next two years to bolster Philippine military muscle amid renewed territorial conflicts in the South China Sea.
A second U.S. Coast Guard cutter would arrive soon from longtime ally, the United States. A refurbished Coast Guard cutter from the U.S. was relaunched by the Philippine navy last year as its largest and most modern warship.
Washington has also provided $30 million to strengthen the Philippine military aside from U.S. help in establishing a national coast watch center that would help protect the archipelago's 36,000-kilometer (22,370-mile) coastline, according to Aquino.
But he stressed that the Philippines was aiming to forge a peaceful solution that would be acceptable to China.
A standoff erupted in April between Chinese and Philippine ships at the Scarborough Shoal, which both countries claim. China calls the shoal Huangyan Island while Manila identifies it as Bajo de Masinloc. Aquino withdrew his country's ships from the contested area last month as tensions with Beijing escalated, but Chinese government ships have stayed.
Some lawmakers have suggested that the Aquino administration tone down its rhetoric and quietly negotiate a compromise with China. A Philippine senator has described the lopsided feud as a clash between a "mosquito" and "a dragon."
"There are those who say that we should let Bajo de Masinloc go. We should avoid the trouble," Aquino said in his nationally televised speech before Congress. "But if someone entered your yard and told you he owned it, would you agree? Would it be right to give away that which is rightfully ours?"
"I do not think it excessive to ask that our rights be respected, just as we respect their rights as a fellow nation in a world we need to share," Aquino said, referring to China.
Taiwan, Malaysia, Vietnam and Brunei also have conflicting claims in the South China Sea. Many fear the resource-rich and busy waters could spark Asia's next major armed conflict.
About 6,000 police officers were deployed to secure the House of Representatives, where Aquino spoke, and nearby roads. Several people were injured when riot police clashed with thousands of left-wing and trade union protesters, who were seeking higher wages, land reform and a stop to alleged human rights violations.
2012年 07月 24日 19:17 JST
［通州（中国） ２４日 ロイター］ 中国政府は２４日、北京市通州区の人民解放軍陸軍航空兵第４ヘリコプター団を外国の記者団に公開し、軍の透明性をアピールした。
先月には航空機エンジン・機械大手の米ユナイテッド・テクノロジーズ(UTX.N: 株価, 企業情報, レポート)が、対中国禁輸措置に違反して、同国最新鋭の攻撃ヘリとみられるＺ─１０の開発に利用できるソフトウエアを中国に売却していたことが明らかとなった。
中国に最新ヘリ技術売却 米傘下企業が禁輸違反 性能格段に向上
United Technologies sent military copter tech to China
By Mark Hosenball and Andrea Shalal-Esa
WASHINGTON | Thu Jun 28, 2012 6:40pm EDT
WASHINGTON (Reuters) - United Technologies Corp on Thursday admitted selling China software that helped Beijing develop its first modern military attack helicopter, one of hundreds of export control violations over nearly two decades.
At a federal court hearing in Bridgeport, Connecticut, United Technologies and its two subsidiaries, Pratt & Whitney Canada and Hamilton Sundstrand Corp, agreed to pay more than $75 million to the U.S. government to settle criminal and administrative charges related to the violations.
As part of the settlement, Pratt & Whitney Canada pleaded guilty to two federal criminal charges - violating a U.S. export control law and making false statements.
Federal prosecutors said the company knew that its export of modified software to China would allow Beijing to test and develop its new military helicopter, called the Z-10, using 10 engines that had been legally exported as commercial items.
They said the company's motive was to gain access to China's lucrative civilian helicopter market.
"P&WC exported controlled U.S. technology to China, knowing it would be used in the development of a military attack helicopter in violation of the U.S. arms embargo with China," said U.S. Attorney David Fein of Connecticut.
"P&WC took what it described internally as a ‘calculated risk,' because it wanted to become the exclusive supplier for a civil helicopter market in China with projected revenues of up to $2 billion," Fein said.
The case comes amid growing U.S. concerns about China's military expansion and escalating electronic espionage.
Federal authorities have brought five major cases since last February, involving everything from drone technology to radiation-hardened computers used in satellite communications.
SLAP ON THE WRIST?
United Technologies said it accepted full responsibility for the violations and deeply regretted that they had occurred. It said it had already spent $30 million to beef up export controls and had hired more than 1,000 full and part-time employees to address the issue.
"These violations revealed important opportunities to strengthen our export compliance program," United Technologies Chief Executive Louis Chenevert said in a statement, adding that both the Justice and State departments had recognized the company's "significant remedial actions."
Fein said the penalties were substantial, but analysts said they amounted to a slap on the wrist for a major global industrial conglomerate with annual revenues of $58.1 billion.
Hamilton Sundstrand and Pratt & Whitney Canada also admitted that they had failed to make timely disclosures, required by regulations, to the U.S. State Department about the exports.
The government said the $75 million settlement included $20.7 million in criminal fines, forfeitures and other penalties to be paid to the Justice Department, and $55 million in payments to the State Department as part of a consent agreement resolving 576 administrative export control violations.
"The Justice Department will spare no effort to hold accountable those who compromise U.S. national security for the sake of profits and then lie about it to the government," said Assistant Attorney General Lisa Monaco.
About $20 million of the State Department fines may be used by the company for improving its export control procedures and hiring an independent monitor, United Technologies said.
As part of the agreement, the U.S. State Department also will impose curbs on new export licenses for Pratt & Whitney Canada, although the company can request licenses on a case-by-case basis. The debarment does not affect the parent company or Hamilton Sundstrand, and the Canadian unit can request full reinstatement in one year.
The company's shares closed $1.56 lower on the New York Stock Exchange on Thursday, a drop of 2.1 percent. It said it had put money in reserve to cover the payments.
A CAPABLE, MODERN HELICOPTER
Western experts said the Z-10, first delivered to China's People's Liberation Army in 2009, is developing into one of the world's most modern and capable combat helicopters.
Full production of the Z-10 would give China's military unprecedented levels of "aerial artillery" to support an amphibious invasion and subsequent operations against Taiwan, which Beijing claims as its own, said Richard Fisher, an expert on China's military use of so-called dual-use technologies.
U.S. authorities said China had been trying to develop a specialized modern military attack helicopter since the 1980s. But since the Chinese government's 1989 crackdown on the pro-democracy movement, the U.S. government has prohibited the export to China of U.S. defense equipment and technology.
The U.S. case against United Technologies said P&WC knew as early as 2000 that China's effort to develop a new helicopter involved a military variant, but repeatedly made false statements about its knowledge.
U.S. authorities said that Pratt & Whitney Canada's initial involvement in the program was to deliver 10 engines to China from Canada in 2001 and 2002. The company believed the engines did not constitute defense equipment subject to the U.S. military embargo on China because the engines were identical to those it was supplying China for commercial helicopters.
The problem arose when Hamilton Sundstrand delivered certain modifications to the engine control software, which allowed China to test and develop the Pratt & Whitney Canada engines as it was developing the new military helicopter.
U.S. authorities say the software modifications were specifically for use on the military program, making them subject to the U.S. military embargo on China.
KNEW FROM OUTSET
According to court documents, Pratt & Whitney Canada allegedly knew from the outset of the Z-10 project in 2000 that China was developing a military helicopter, but failed to notify its U.S. parent and Hamilton Sundstrand until years later.
According to court documents, in one 2001 internal e-mail, a Pratt & Whitney Canada manager said: "We must be very careful that the helicopter programs we are doing with the Chinese are not presented or viewed as military programs. As a result of these sanctions, we need to be very careful with the Z10C program. If the first flight will be a gunship, then we could have problems with the U.S. government."
In the United States, U.S. investigators say, Hamilton Sundstrand believed it was providing its software to Pratt & Whitney Canada for use in a civilian Chinese helicopter, although it learned in 2004 about a possible export law problem and stopped working on the Z-10 program. But authorities say Pratt & Whitney Canada then modified software on its own and continued to export it to China through June 2005.
A law enforcement source said the companies did not even launch an internal inquiry until a non-governmental organization involved in examining "socially responsible" investments in February 2006 asked United Technologies whether Pratt & Whitney Canada's involvement in the Z-10's development might violate U.S. export laws. The group threatened to recommend that investors sell their holdings in UTC.
That investigation led to an initial disclosure, in July 2006, to U.S. authorities about the Z-10 issue.
Analysts said the settlement was a setback for United Technologies, which is trying to transform itself into an aerospace giant. But the penalties are unlikely to affect the company's sales in China, which accounted for almost $10 billion of its 2011 sales.
"It's certainly a black eye," said analyst Jeff Sprague of Vertical Research Partners.
United Tech expects to close in coming weeks on its $16.5 billion acquisition of aircraft components maker Goodrich Corp. It has put three units up for sale, including the industrial arm of the Hamilton Sundstrand division.
Jay DeFrank, a spokesman for Pratt & Whitney, said the company continued to do business in China, but it had launched major efforts to educate all 70,000 employees in United Technologies' aerospace units about export controls.
"China is and remains an important market for UTC and we will continue to do business there in full compliance with the law," he said.
The Obama administration has lent high-level backing to United Technologies' work in China.
Then-Commerce Secretary Gary Locke, now the U.S. ambassador to China, visited a Pratt & Whitney joint venture in Shanghai in May 2010, according to the company's website.
_ とおりすがりでYAS ― 2012/07/25 09:38
_ 奔放な旅人 ― 2012/07/25 10:23
_ めっさーら ― 2012/07/25 16:23
_ Y-SONODA ― 2012/07/26 06:37
_ とおりすがりでYAS ― 2012/07/26 10:45
_ Y-SONODA ― 2012/07/29 07:14