Google
WWW を検索 「園田義明めも。」を検索

「周永康」発言に異変を嗅ぎ取る欧米メディア2011/02/22 09:06

「周永康」発言に異変を嗅ぎ取る欧米メディア


欧米メディアが注目している「周永康」発言。その肩書きは共産党中央政治局常務委員・中央政法(公安・司法)委書記。

本当に言ったかどうかはわからないが、揃って「社会不安を和らげる新たな方法を見つける必要がある」との発言を強調して伝えている。

中国版「ジャスミン革命」にブルブル・パンダ。神経をとがらせて必死の報道規制中。欧米メディアは「新たな方法を見つけないと大変なことになる」との中国の焦りを嗅ぎ取っているようだ。

2月15日のインターネットの自由に関する演説。中国名指しで「独裁者のジレンマ」に直面すると語ったのはクリントン米国務長官。

その米国や香港では中国民主派支援の動き。Xデーが迫っているのか。そこには何やら「Xデーをいつでも仕掛けられるぞ」との欧米流の脅しも見え隠れ。


<関連記事引用>

○社会管理の強化・革新を強調 周永康政治局常務委員
2011/02/21 新華社ニュース(中国通信社)

 (中国通信=東京)北京20日発新華社電によると、中国の周永康共産党中央政治局常務委員・中央政法(公安・司法)委書記は同日午前、一級行政区・中央省庁クラス主要指導幹部の社会管理とその革新(イノベーション)に関するセミナーで演説し、胡錦涛総書記の同セミナーでの重要演説を真剣に学び、貫き、経済・社会発展の新たな情勢に適応し、社会管理を強化、革新し、中国の特色ある社会主義の社会管理体系を築き、党の執政(政権運営)の地位を固め、人民の根本的利益を守り、国の長期的安定を保証しなければならないと強調した。

 周永康氏はまた次のように強調した。社会管理の強化・革新は社会管理分野の一つの改革であり、中国の実情から出発し、自らの道を歩み、伝統的優位性の発揮と革新・発展の関係を正しく処理すべきで、過去を全面的に否定し、別のことを行うことはできない。政治的優位性と制度面の優位性を発揮し、国外の有益な成果を参考にし、党委員会が指導し、政府が責任を負い、社会が協力し、大衆が参加する社会管理構造を整え、社会管理の科学的水準を高める。各級党委員会は社会をリードし、社会を組織し、社会を管理し、社会に寄与する能力を高め、末端の党組織を大衆のために利益をはかる闘いの砦に築き、広範な党員が大衆に寄与する中で先進性を示すようにしなければならない。労働者、青年、女性などの大衆組織、末端大衆自治組織、社会組織、企業・事業体が社会管理に積極的に参加し、党委員会、政府との相互補完・相互作用の社会管理ネットワークに積極的に参加しなければならない。組織・大衆の社会管理への法律に基づく秩序ある参加を促し、社会管理に人々が参加し、調和社会を人々が共有する良好な局面を築くため努力しなければならない。

 周永康氏は次のように強調した。社会管理体制、仕組み、制度の革新を積極的に推進する。人口サービス管理面で住民身分証制度を整備し、国の人口基礎情報データベースを確立し、実際の人口に対する管理サービス水準を高める。経済組織管理の面で労使関係の協調・協議の仕組みを確立し、調和のとれた労使関係の構築に努力する。社会組織管理の面で、個別発展・管理の仕組みを確立し、社会組織の健全かつ秩序ある発展をはかる。海外非政府組織(NPO)の中国での活動管理の面で、合同管理の仕組みを確立し、正当な交流・協力を保護し、法律に基づいて管理を強化する。インターネット管理の面で党委員会が統一的に指導し、政府が厳格に管理し、企業が法律に従って運営し、業界が自主規制を強化し、社会全体が共同で監督する総合的管理構造を築き、健全な発展をはかる。社会矛盾解消の面で党と政府が主導する、大衆の権益を守る仕組みを整え、大衆の権益を主体的に法律に従って守り、矛盾・紛争を萌芽の状態のうちに解消する努力をする。社会治安の面で平安を作り出す活動を深く進め、社会治安体系を確立し、寛容と厳格を結びつけた刑事政策を実行に移し、大衆の生命・財産の安全に重大な影響を与える各種犯罪を防ぎ、取り締まる度合いを強め、また社会的対立を減らし、社会の調和をはかる。市場経済秩序を維持する面で、社会信頼制度を確立し、偽物製造・販売を厳しく取り締まり、人民の生命・健康の安全を保障する。精神衛生の面で、予測、警戒、誘導、救助の仕組みを確立し、社会構成員の心の問題を迅速に見つけ、解決し、社会的リスクを防ぎ、減らす。


○周永康氏、北京の警備状況を視察 社会的矛盾の解消強調
2011/02/03 新華社ニュース(中国通信社)

 (中国通信=東京)北京1日発新華社電によると、春節(旧正月、今年は2月3日)を前に、周永康共産党中央政治局常務委員・中央政法(公安司法)委書記は1日、首都北京の警備や裁判所、パトロールなどの状況を視察し、第一線の警察官、武装警察将兵、治安担当者を慰労し、新春のあいさつを述べた。

 東城区人民法院(地裁)を訪れた際、周氏は「現在、社会的矛盾はまだ比較的多く、裁判官の責任は重い。各級法院は公正、クリーンで、人民のための司法という中核的価値観を発揚し、裁判の管理を刷新し、より一層大衆を尊重し、大衆の便宜を図り、大衆に寄与し、社会的矛盾を有効に解消し、裁判で人の和をはかり、大衆が公平・正義を身近に感じられるようにしなければならない」と強調した。

 また北京特殊警察が天安門地区で実施している武装パトロールを称賛し、これは犯罪に対する抑止力になり、また突発的事態が起きれば直ぐに対応し、迅速に処理でき、こうしたやり方を続けるべきだと強調した。

 中南海地区の派出所を訪れた際、周氏は力を科学的に配置し、大衆のために積極的に寄与し、スムーズな交通をはかり、防火に努め、治安秩序を維持し、人々が楽しく春節を過ごせるようにすることを希望した。

 視察には王楽泉党中央政治局委員・中央政法委副書記、劉淇・同政治局委員・北京市党委書記、孟建柱国務委員・公安相、王勝俊最高人民法院院長が同行した。


中国、一斉集会封じ込め、全人代控え北京緊張―民主化機運を引き締め。
2011/02/22 日本経済新聞 朝刊

 北京や上海など13都市での一斉集会の開催が不発に終わった中国では21日、インターネット規制など当局による集会阻止に向けた動きが加速している。民主化を目指す呼びかけなどを契機に北京で群衆が集まった20日の事態は異例なだけに、共産党・政府は危機感を抱いており、3月5日に全国人民代表大会(国会に相当)の開幕を控え、首都は緊張に包まれそうだ。

 ネットでの呼びかけが端緒となった集会の予定時刻は20日午後2時(日本時間同3時)。政変を起こしたチュニジアのジャスミン革命に倣い、共産党一党独裁の廃止などを求めるはずだったが、各地の公安当局が多数の警察官を配置し、集会やデモを未然に防いだ。

 一時、数百~数千人が集まった北京と上海では公安当局が計5人を連行。公安当局者によると、事情聴取に当たった警察官は「今回は呼びかけに従っただけの行為なので大目にみるが、今後は国家政権転覆扇動罪で摘発する」と参加者にクギを刺したという。

 集会の呼びかけは、中国では閲覧不可能なはずのミニブログ「ツイッター」上の書き込みが、国内サイトに次々と転載されていっただけに、当局はネット情報の監視に懸命だ。治安を担当する周永康・党政治局常務委員は20日、地方幹部らにネットを含めた社会管理の強化を指示した。

 北京の集合場所に指定されていたのは繁華街の王府井大通りだったが、21日からは「王府井」と入力しての検索だけでなく、王府井の文字を含む書き込みや携帯メールは発信できなくなった。呼びかけを掲載した反体制派のニュースサイトは閲覧できない状態だ。

 当局は国内メディアの報道規制も強化。21日付の中国各紙は集会に絡む騒ぎを一切報じず、20日に国営新華社が「北京と上海に集まった群衆を警察が解散させた」と英文で伝えたのみで、背景には一切触れていない。一方で共産党に近い中国系香港紙、文匯報は21日、「中東(の政変)と同じ事態が中国で起こることは不可能」とする論評を掲載した。

 北京の集会に向かった若手民主派グループの幹部は「1989年の天安門事件以降、北京で反体制を目指す人々が集まろうとしたのは、(気功集団の)法輪功が99年に党中枢の中南海を取り囲んで以来だ」と強調する。書き込みは毎週日曜日の行動を呼び掛けていることもあり、当局による言論・集会の引き締めと世論誘導は強まる一方だ。

 グループに参加する男性には、騒ぎを知った友人から問い合わせがあったという。男性は「やじ馬が多かったとはいえ、数日間のネット情報だけで監視の厳しい首都に最大2千人が集まった。国民が変化の兆しを感じ始めた意味は大きい」と話した。(北京=尾崎実)


米国や香港から 中国民主派支援
2011/2/21 22:11
http://s.nikkei.com/h4KANC

 【香港=吉田渉】米国や香港では中国民主派を支援する動きが出ている。米国の民主派団体「中国民主党全国委員会」はインターネットを通じて「ジャスミン革命を支持し、様々な手段で情報を伝え続ける」と宣言。香港の民主派政党も20日、民主化運動を支援するデモを開いた。

 中国での集会計画は米国のニュースサイト「博訊」上での呼び掛けが契機とされる。20日、集会予定地に集まった市民らは厳しい規制をかいくぐり、このサイトに現場の様子を報告した。


Senior Chinese official calls for improved social management for long-term stability
http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/china/2011-02/20/c_13740791.htm

BEIJING, Feb. 20 (Xinhua) -- Senior Chinese official Zhou Yongkang Sunday reiterated the necessity to improve and innovate social management so as to "ensure the country's long-term peace and stability".

Zhou's call came a day after Chinese President Hu Jintao stressed the need to maximize factors conducive to harmony and minimize those detrimental to it.

At a high-profile seminar attended by provincial and ministerial-level officials, Zhou underlined the need to build a socialist social management system with Chinese characteristics, consolidate the ruling status of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and safeguard people's fundamental interests.

Zhou, a Standing Committee member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, urged officials to put "improving social management and innovations in this regard" as their "top responsibility".

It is necessary to "detect conflicts and problems in time" and "take forward-looking, active and effective measures to improve social management", he said.

Zhou urged efforts to "correctly reflect and coordinate various interests", take into account public concerns and enforce social management through communications on equal footing, negotiation, coordination, education and guidance.

It is imperative for China to proceed from its reality, takes its own path in improving and innovating social management, he said.

The country would give play to the advantages of its political system and mechanism while learning useful experience from foreign countries to improve the structure of social management comprising Party committee leadership, government responsibility, nongovernmental support and public participation, he said.

Zhou stressed it was significant to improve residence permit system and build a national database regarding basic information of the country's population so as to better service and management for the public.

To boost the healthy development of Internet, a comprehensive management structure should be formed featuring Party committees' leadership, government's strict management, enterprises' lawful operation, the Internet industry's self-discipline and joint supervision by the society, Zhou said.

Other major tasks in improving and innovating social management listed by Zhou include step-up fight against crimes, reduction of social confrontations, crackdown on making and selling of counterfeit goods and preventing and minimizing social risks.


21 February 2011 Last updated at 10:22 GMT
China's security tsar warns over 'jasmine revolution'
By Chris Hogg
BBC News, Shanghai
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-12522856

China's official in charge of the state security apparatus has warned of the need to find new ways to defuse unrest.

Zhou Yongkang urged senior officials to improve "social management" and "detect conflicts and problems early on", the state-run Xinhua news agency reported.

He was speaking at a weekend seminar which took place as an internet campaign tried to provoke a "jasmine revolution" in China.

On Sunday, police dispersed a meeting of people who had answered the call.

In Shanghai, three men were detained. Leading human rights activists and lawyers were taken into police custody in the hours before the protests were due to begin.

But the call for mass participation in the demonstrations went largely unheeded.

'Mass incidents'

Mr Zhou - a member of the Chinese Communist Party's nine-man ruling politburo - is responsible for maintaining law and order in the country.

During the seminar, he also told officials that they needed to build a national database with basic information about Chinese people, Xinhua reported.

Mr Zhou's comments followed others made by senior officials in recent days that suggested the country's leadership was worried about challenges to its rule in the longer term as the country's uneven economic development continues.

Figures published last year suggested the Chinese government spent almost as much on maintaining internal security as on defence.

A leading government think-tank has said there have been 90,000 so-called "mass incidents" - examples of public unrest - in China every year since 2007.

Some in China have questioned whether there was ever a serious plan to get people out onto the streets last week.

Academics said it appeared the government was reacting to "rumours" by arresting activists.

The conditions did not yet exist here for such a mass movement to succeed, they said. The controls on the internet, and out on the streets were too strong.


China calls for domestic unrest to be defused
11:33am GMT
By Chris Buckley
http://uk.reuters.com/article/2011/02/21/uk-china-unrest-idUKTRE71K14E20110221

BEIJING (Reuters) - China must find new ways to defuse unrest, the domestic security chief said, underscoring Beijing's anxiety about control after police quashed calls for gatherings inspired by uprisings in the Middle East.

A Foreign Ministry official separately blamed the political violence sweeping the Middle East on too-slow growth and stunted efforts at reform.

Zhou Yongkang, the ruling Communist Party's top law-and-order official, told cadres they had to "adapt to new trends and imperatives in economic and social development", official newspapers reported on Monday.

"Strive to defuse conflicts and disputes while they are still embryonic," he told an official meeting on Sunday, the China Police Daily and other papers reported.

Over the weekend, Chinese police and censors showed the Communist Party has little to fear from protesters hoping to emulate the unrest that has unseated Egypt's long-time president, Hosni Mubarak, and now threatens Libyan strongman Muammar Gaddafi.

Police dispersed dozens of people who gathered in central Beijing and Shanghai on Sunday after calls spread on overseas Chinese websites urging "Jasmine Revolution" gatherings. The police and foreign reporters outnumbered aspiring participants and curious passers-by caught up in the crowd.

There were no signs of protests in Beijing on Monday.

"I don't think this was ever a serious plan. It was more like a performance or a stunt," said Cui Weiping, a Beijing-based scholar who said she was not allowed outside by authorities on Sunday. "In fact I'd never even had any involvement. They seem to have just confined anyone they could think of."

"JASMINE" STILL UNSEARCHABLE

The senior Foreign Ministry policy planning official said the Middle Eastern turmoil arose from the failure of countries to grow and adapt quickly enough.

"Three feet of ice doesn't freeze over in one day, as we say. This has deep social, economic and historical background," said the official, speaking to a small group of reporters on condition that his name was not cited.

"I think these countries may have not been able to keep up with the times in their social and economic system," he said. "Some countries have had relatively slow economic development. Their rate of economic growth hasn't been fast enough."

That is hardly a worry for China, whose economy expanded by 10.3 percent last year. But a flurry of speeches and statements since last week show leaders are nonetheless worried about longer-term challenges to their rule.

China's fast economic growth has undercut discontent that could challenge the government. It has also enabled sharply higher funding for domestic security forces, which bristle with surveillance equipment and intimidating hardware.

Yet despite harsh restrictions on independent political activity, China has many local riots, protests and strikes, often sparked by anger over corruption, land disputes and job losses.

The central government fears those tensions could accumulate. Provincial and ministerial level officials have been meeting in Beijing to discuss how to cope with these worries through stronger "social management", and President Hu Jintao himself told them that they should be worried.

"The problems remain of development that is unbalanced, ill-coordinated and unsustainable," Hu said in a speech on Saturday. He urged the officials to "strengthen governance to nip social conflicts in the bud".

The Chinese words for "jasmine" and "jasmine revolution" remained blocked Monday on the searches of China's Twitter-like website Sina.com, and on Tianya.cn, a popular chatroom.

Chinese state media have been largely silent on the planned protests, although state news agency Xinhua published two short articles that described how police dispersed the small crowds that had gathered in Beijing and Shanghai.

The Communist Party's zeal in smothering dissent to maintain stability at all costs has created a domestic security system so expensive that it is sapping funds needed elsewhere to maintain the country's economic health.

Critics say the Communist Party's reluctance to embrace political reforms will ultimately doom its efforts to create a more "harmonious society", particularly if it can't control officials who are the target of discontent.

"The Chinese government is extremely powerful vis-à-vis society," said Pei Minxin, a political scientist at Claremont McKenna College in California. "But this is a government that is very weak at disciplining or policing its own agents."

(Additional reporting by Huang Yan and Sui-Lee Wee, Editing by Nick Macfie)


FEBRUARY 21, 2011, 4:35 P.M. ET
China Co-Opts Social Media to Head Off Unrest
By JEREMY PAGE
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703610604576158290935677316.html?mod=googlenews_wsj

BEIJING—China's domestic security chief, Zhou Yongkang, added his voice to calls for tighter Internet controls as censors ratcheted up temporary online restrictions, a day after a failed attempt to use social-networking sites to start a "Jasmine Revolution" in China.

Mr. Zhou, one of the nine members of the Communist Party's Politburo Standing Committee, the government's top decision-making body, was quoted in official media Monday as saying Chinese officials needed to find new ways to defuse social unrest. He made the remarks at a meeting of Chinese officials on Sunday, when police and Internet censors easily thwarted an anonymous online appeal for people to stage simultaneous antigovernment protests in Beijing, Shanghai and 11 other Chinese cities.

"Strive to defuse conflicts and disputes while they are still embryonic," Mr. Zhou was quoted as saying. On Saturday, President and party chief Hu Jintao also called in a speech for tighter Internet supervision to help prevent social unrest.

Only a handful of people turned up Sunday for the planned protests, as police detained or confined to their homes dozens of activists across China and Internet censors blocked searches for the word "Jasmine" on Twitter-like microblogging sites and other websites.

Communist Party leaders have issued a flurry of statements in the past few days reflecting their concern that social issues such as rising food prices, combined with the unbridled flow of information over the Internet, could trigger the kind of protests that have challenged authoritarian governments across the Middle East and North Africa.

At the same time, the government has demonstrated many of the tools at its disposal to prevent such a protest movement from gaining traction—from thuggery and physical intimidation to media manipulation and a sophisticated Internet censorship system, known as the "Great Firewall."

Despite the role of Twitter and Facebook Inc. in mobilizing protests in Egypt, Tunisia and elsewhere, China is, for the moment, allowing Chinese social-networking sites to flourish—provided they cooperate with censors by removing or blocking controversial material.

One social networking site, Renren.com—a Chinese equivalent of Facebook that focuses on entertainment and is rarely used for political discussion—said Monday that it planned a $500 million initial public offering in New York.

A senior foreign-policy planning official said the Chinese government wasn't worried by U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's speech last week in which she said China and other authoritarian countries were facing a "dictator's dilemma" on how to control the Internet.

"We're not afraid," the official told a small group of foreign and Chinese reporters Monday. "We don't have anything to worry about, but we have to prevent people from using the Internet to damage or destroy social stability."

He said China had identified the potential benefits and risks of the Internet early on, and he compared it to a nuclear weapon that could make a country strong, while also exposing it to new dangers.

The official blamed the recent unrest in the Mideast and North Africa principally on their relatively slow economic development and their "old methods" of controlling society.

China, by contrast, has maintained rapid economic growth while using a combination of old and new methods to prevent a repeat of the 1989 pro-democracy protests around Tiananmen Square that were crushed by the army.

At one end of the spectrum, China has used traditional judicial and extrajudicial measures, jailing some dissidents, such as Liu Xiaobo, who won last year's Nobel Peace Prize, while placing others, including his wife, under a form of house arrest that is technically illegal. Before Sunday's call for a "Jasmine Revolution," Chinese police detained or confined to their homes dozens of other political activists, according to several human-rights groups.

Earlier this month, rights groups reported that security officers had beaten a blind lawyer, Chen Guangcheng, and his wife after the couple smuggled out a video showing they were being confined to their home, even after Mr. Chen was released from prison.

At the other end of the spectrum, China's Internet censors have demonstrated a highly sophisticated capacity to control the flow of information online without shutting it down completely—principally by obliging Internet companies to remove politically sensitive content.

When the protests in Egypt began, for example, censors allowed limited reporting and discussion of the unrest online but kept a lid on the number of people viewing it, mainly by blocking searches for "Egypt" and related terms on microblogging sites.

They quickly took the controls to a new level on Sunday, after the anonymous appeal for a "Jasmine Revolution" in China appeared on a U.S.-based Chinese language website and began to be circulated first on Twitter, which is blocked in China, and then on some Chinese microblogging sites. All references to the appeal were deleted from Chinese sites, and searches for "Jasmine" and related words were blocked on search engines and microblogging sites, and people were temporarily prevented from posting items with photographs and links to other sites. The search function on Sina Weibo, one of the most popular microblogging sites, was disabled.

On Monday, many Internet users reported having problems using the virtual private networks that normally allow them to circumvent China's "Great Firewall" to view politically sensitive sites.

Many people also reported having problems sending text messages including references to Sunday's planned protests, such as the word "Wangfujing"—the name of the shopping district where protesters were encouraged to gather in Beijing on Sunday.

Chinese officials appear to be particularly concerned about microblogs, which can spread information so quickly that tens of thousands of users may notice if something is suddenly blocked or a function isn't available, especially if it was posted by someone popular.

Qiao Mu, director of the Center for International Communications Studies at Beijing Foreign Students University, said Sina Weibo appeared to be deleting more posts since President Hu's speech Saturday calling for tighter Internet controls. "I think the Internet situation in China will get worse," he said.

—Loretta Chao,
Yoli Zhang and Juliet Ye
contributed to this article.