完全機密の高濃縮ウラン（ＨＥＵ）米露移送作戦 ― 2008/12/29 00:00
James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS) for the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI)によれば、
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23 December 2004
Highly Enriched Uranium Repatriated from Czech Republic to Russia
Joint effort also involved United States, International Atomic Energy Agency
U.S. Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham announced December 22 that six kilograms of highly enriched uranium (HEU) that could be used for nuclear weapons have been safely returned to the Russian Federation from the Czech Republic.
Abraham applauded the Czech Republic for taking measures to secure the uranium and then working cooperatively with the United States, Russia and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to return it to a secure facility in Dimitrovgrad, Russia, where it will be down-blended to low enriched uranium.
This is the sixth successful shipment of HEU returned to Russia.
Following is a Department of Energy release:
U.S. Department of Energy
December 22, 2004
HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM REPATRIATED FROM THE CZECH REPUBLIC
-- Fuel Returned to Secure Facility in Russia
WASHINGTON, D.C.-- Six kilograms of highly enriched uranium (HEU) that could be used for nuclear weapons were safely returned to the Russian Federation from the Czech Republic in a secret mission completed early Wednesday morning, U.S. Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham announced today. The mission was a joint effort between the United States, the Czech Republic, Russia, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and is another accomplishment of the Bush Administration’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI).
“The recovery, return and eventual elimination of this highly enriched uranium is an important milestone in our efforts to reduce this dangerous nuclear material worldwide,” Secretary Abraham said. “We applaud the strong leadership of the Czech Republic for taking measures to secure this material and working cooperatively with the United States, Russia and the IAEA to successfully return it to Russia.”
According to Secretary Abraham, the highly enriched uranium was airlifted under guard from an airport near Prague, Czech Republic to a secure facility in Dimitrovgrad, Russia. There, the highly enriched uranium will be down-blended to low enriched uranium.
The nuclear fuel was originally supplied to the Czech Republic by the Soviet Union for use in the Soviet-designed 10 megawatt LVR-15 multi-purpose research reactor, located in Rez near the Czech capital, Prague. In 2000, NNSA and the Czech Nuclear Research Institute completed a joint project to upgrade security of the nuclear material at Rez until it could be returned to Russia. Earlier this year, Secretary Abraham and Russian Federal Atomic Energy Agency Director Alexander Rumyantsev signed a bilateral agreement between the U.S. and Russian Federation governments to facilitate the repatriation of Russian-origin HEU research reactor fuel to Russia.
During the one-day mission, approximately six kilograms of HEU were loaded into four specialized transportation containers. IAEA safeguards inspectors and NNSA technical experts were present in Rez to monitor the process of loading the fuel into canisters. The facility in Russia that received the material has worked closely with the NNSA to implement security upgrades.
The mission of the GTRI is to identify, secure, recover and/or facilitate the final disposition of high-risk vulnerable nuclear and radiological materials around the world that pose a threat to the United States and the international community. The initiative will comprehensively address vulnerable material and radiological materials throughout the world and secure and/or remove these materials of concern as expeditiously as possible.
This is the sixth successful shipment of HEU being returned to Russia. In the past two years, NNSA has repatriated a total of 51 kg of HEU to Russia from Romania, Bulgaria, Libya, and Uzbekistan. And in August 2002, 48 kg of Russian-origin HEU were repatriated from a research reactor near Belgrade, Serbia.
(Distributed by the Bureau of International Information Programs, U.S. Department of State. Web site: http://usinfo.state.gov)
December 18, 2006
Almost 600 Pounds of Highly Enriched Uranium Returned to Russia
Largest shipment of highly enriched uranium ever under NNSA's Global Threat Reduction Initiative
DRESDEN, GERMANY - With assistance from the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), more than 590 pounds of highly enriched uranium was returned from a former East German civilian nuclear facility to Russia.
The shipment of 268 kilograms (over 590 pounds) of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is the largest shipment of Soviet-origin HEU ever conducted under a key NNSA nonproliferation program, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), since the inception of GTRI two-and-a-half years ago. The five-day operation took place at the Rossendorf nuclear facility near Dresden, Germany.
The effort was completed in cooperation with Germany, the Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The HEU “fresh” (unirradiated) fuel was loaded into 18 Russian TK-S16 specialized transportation containers at Rossendorf with NNSA technical experts and IAEA safeguards inspectors monitoring the fuel loading process. The canisters were transported under heavy guard and then airlifted from Dresden Airport to a secure facility in Russia.
"We applaud Germany's leadership in taking measures to return this material and we also appreciate the strong support of the Russian Federation and the IAEA for this important international nonproliferation project," said NNSA Administrator Linton F. Brooks. "This successful removal is an example of the international community working collectively to reduce the threat of nuclear terrorism, and is the kind of concrete international security action that increases both U.S. security and that of our allies."
The mission of NNSA’s GTRI program is to identify, secure, recover and/or facilitate the final disposition of high-risk, vulnerable nuclear and radiological materials around the world as quickly as possible.
The shipment was part of the prioritized, accelerated schedule in support of the Bush-Putin Bratislava Joint Statement on Nuclear Security Cooperation. The Bratislava agreement was struck by Presidents Bush and Putin during their February 2005 meeting and includes initiatives to encourage US-Russia nuclear security cooperation.
The HEU fresh fuel will be permanently downblended from HEU to LEU in Russia to ensure that it cannot be used to make nuclear weapons. NNSA provided technical support and Germany provided the funding for this operation.
The mission of NNSA’s GTRI program is to identify, secure, recover and/or facilitate the final disposition of high-risk, vulnerable nuclear and radiological materials around the world as quickly as possible. To date, 15 shipments of approximately 496 kilograms (1,092 pounds) of HEU fresh and spent fuel have been returned to Russia from Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Libya, Uzbekistan, Latvia, the Czech Republic, Poland, and the former East Germany.
NNSA Public Affairs (202) 586-7371
July 17, 2008
All Highly Enriched Uranium Removed from Bulgaria
Bulgaria is the Second Country to Return all Soviet-origin HEU to Secure Sites
WASHINGTON, D.C. – Nearly 14 pounds (6.3 kg.) of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in “spent” nuclear fuel was secured today at a Russian nuclear facility. The Soviet-era HEU spent fuel was transported by truck, barge, and rail in secret and secure conditions by the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) from Bulgaria with the cooperation of several international organizations.
“The complete removal of all highly enriched uranium from Bulgaria is another milestone in NNSA’s cooperative effort to reduce the threat of nuclear proliferation and prevent nuclear terrorism,” said NNSA Administrator Thomas D’Agostino. “Bulgaria’s commitment to remove and secure dangerous nuclear and radiological material at civilian nuclear sites demonstrates the international commitment to nonproliferation and global threat reduction.”
In the 1970s, the Soviet Union sent several shipments to Bulgaria. This is the second shipment of HEU to be safely and securely sent to Russia from Bulgaria. The first shipment of 37.3 pounds (16.9 kg.) of HEU “fresh” fuel occurred in December 2003.
Through NNSA’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), the United States worked in close cooperation with the Russian Federation, Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to pack, secure and ship the material. It was packaged into three VPVR/M specialized transportation casks and then transported under guard from the IRT-2000 Research Reactor in Sofia to the Danube River, where it was loaded onto a barge and shipped to the port of Ismail in Ukraine. At Ismail, it was loaded onto two railroad platforms and shipped to a secure Russian facility near Chelyabinsk. GTRI has also worked to upgrade security and protect 28 radiological sites in Bulgaria.
Bulgaria is a key partner in the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism launched by Presidents Bush and Putin in 2006 to expand international partnerships addressing the global threat of nuclear terrorism.
The shipment from Bulgaria is also in accordance with a prioritized, accelerated schedule developed from the February 2005 Bush-Putin Bratislava Joint Statement on Nuclear Security Cooperation, which specifically called for the United States and Russia to work jointly to return HEU fuel from U.S. and Soviet-designed research reactors in other countries and to take other steps to reduce the threat of global nuclear terrorism. In support of this accelerated schedule, GTRI has already removed over 220 pounds (100 kg.) of Soviet-origin HEU fuel to date in FY 2008.
Also, in June of this year, Bulgaria agreed to expand cooperation to prevent the smuggling of dangerous nuclear and radiological materials by working with NNSA to install radiation detection equipment at multiple international points of entry and exit along its borders. NNSA is also helping to train Bulgarian customs, border police, and export control personnel to recognize and interdict export controlled commodities and weapons of mass destruction-related materials or technology.
Bulgaria is the second country under which GTRI has removed all HEU received from the Soviet Union after Latvia removed all of its HEU in May.
GTRI has also completed the removal of all U.S.-origin HEU spent fuel from 13 countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Denmark, Greece, Italy, the Philippines, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden and Thailand.
GTRI’s mission is to reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological materials located at civilian sites worldwide. With the successful completion of the shipment from Bulgaria today, a total of approximately 1,345 pounds (610 kg.) of HEU fuel (spent and fresh) have been returned to Russia from Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Libya, Uzbekistan, Poland, Germany, the Czech Republic, Latvia, and Vietnam.
Established by Congress in 2000, NNSA is a separately organized agency within the U.S. Department of Energy responsible for enhancing national security through the military application of nuclear science. NNSA maintains and enhances the safety, security, reliability and performance of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile without nuclear testing; works to reduce global danger from weapons of mass destruction; provides the U.S. Navy with safe and effective nuclear propulsion; and responds to nuclear and radiological emergencies in the U.S. and abroad.
NNSA Public Affairs (202) 586-7371
Pablo Adelfang, Ira Goldman, Adalberto Soares and E. Bradley, "Status and Progress of IAEA Activities on Research Reactor Conversion and Spent Fuel Return Programmes in the Years 2005-2006," <http://www.iaea.org/OurWork/ST/NE/NEFW/documents/RERTR_2006_Adelfang_paper.doc> .
David Albright and Kimberly Kramer. "Civil HEU Watch: Tracking Inventories of Civil Highly Enriched Uranium," in Global Stocks of Nuclear Explosive Materials, Institute for Science and International Security Chapter III <http://www.isis-online.org/global_stocks/end2003/civil_heu_watch2005.pdf > .
Alexander Glaser and Frank N. von Hippel. "Global Cleanout: Reducing the Threat of HEU-Fueled Nuclear Terrorism," Arms Control Today, January/February 2006, <http://www.armscontrol.org/act/2006_01-02/JANFEB-heuFeature.asp> .
CNS communication with official from National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), July 17, 2008.
"Communication Received from France Concerning its Policies regarding the Management of Plutonium," INFCIRC/549/Add.5/11, August 20, 2007, <http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Documents/Infcircs/2007/infcirc549a2-10.pdf> .
"Communication Received from Germany Concerning Its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium," INFCIRC/549/Add.2/10, August 20, 2007, <http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Documents/Infcircs/2007/infcirc549a8-10.pdf> .
"Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning Its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium," INFCIRC/549/Add.8/10, September 19, 2007, <http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Documents/Infcircs/2007/infcirc549a8-10.pdf>.
Imperial College Reactor Decommissioning website, <http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/reactordecommissioning/background> .
International Panel on Fissile Materials, Global Fissile Material Report 2007: Second report of the International Panel on Fissile Materials, <http://www.fissilematerials.org/ipfm/site_down/gfmr07.pdf>.
NNSA, "All Highly Enriched Uranium Removed from Latvia," May 16, 2008, <http://nnsa.energy.gov/print/2006.htm>.
NNSA, "GTRI: More That Three Years of Reducing Nuclear Threats," September 2007, <http://nnsa.energy.gov/news/793.htm> .
NNSA, “Highly Enriched Uranium Removed from Hungary,” October 23, 2008, <http://nnsa.energy.gov/news/2189.htm>.
NNSA, “NNSA Completes Successful Year of U.S.-origin Nuclear Fuel Returns,” October 7, 2008, <http://nnsa.energy.gov/2173.htm>.
NNSA, “NNSA Cooperates with Argentina, South Africa and Ukraine to Convert Research Reactors,” October 13, 2008, <http://nnsa.energy.gov/2183.htm>.
NNSA, “Nuclear and Radiological Material Removed from Japan, Germany, Sweden, and Denmark,” July 3, 2008, <http://nnsa.energy.gov/2069.htm>.
Last Updated: October 2008
紅白歌合戦のエンヤさん ― 2008/12/29 09:09
Clannad - Siúil A Rún
Clannad - Down by the Sally Gardens - Live Sept. 08
Siúil A Rúnという曲は実に奥深いのです。
＜Siúil A Rúnを原曲とするもの＞
gone the rainbow- peter, paul, and mary
Johnny Has Gone For A Soldier - James Taylor - Mark O'Connor
SolasのJohnny's Gone for a Soldierいいのになぁ。